Below you will find an overview of how emissions from the cement industry are handled from a legislative perspective.
Industrial Emissions Directive
In 2011, the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) entered into force. The aim of this Directive is to minimize pollution from various industrial sources across the EU. As a result Operators of industrial installations listed under Annex I of the Directive (including the cement plants) must obtain an integrated permit from the Member State authorities.
The IED is based on several principles, as follows:
Useful information: IED
Best Available Techniques Reference Documents (BREFi)
Under the Industrial Emission Directive (IED), permit conditions including emission limit values (ELVs) must be based on Best Available Techniques (BAT). The reference for setting permit conditions are the “BAT conclusions” which contain information on the emission levels associated with the best available techniques. These BAT conclusions are developed via an exchange of information between experts from the EU Member States, industry and environmental organizations. This exchange of information is coordinated via Technical Working Groups (TWGi), established by the European IPPCi Bureau of the Institute for Prospective Technology Studies at the EU Joint Research Centre in Seville (Spain). This results in the adoption and publication by the Commission of the BAT conclusions and BAT Reference Documents (BREFs).
Regarding the cement industry, in 2012, the Commission launched the process for transforming relevant parts of the Cement, Lime and Magnesium Oxide (CLM) BREF into BAT Conclusions. The revised version of the BAT conclusions and the adaptation of the CLM BREF to the provisions of the IED were submitted for adoption by the European Commission. In 2013, the Commission Implementing Decision 2013/163/EU establishing the BAT conclusions on industrial emissions for the production of cement, lime and magnesium oxide was published in the Official Journal of the European Union.
The emissions limit values for the cement industry are the following:
IED – Annex VI
NOx Lepol and long kiln
<800 until 2016
|Dioxins and furans||ng/Nm3||0.1||0.1|
(1) Derogations for ELVs in case TOC and SO2 does not result from co-incineration
BATAELs are neither emission nor consumption limit values and should not be understood as such. This is to be understood as meaning that those levels represent the environmental performance that could be anticipated as a result of the application, in this sector, of the techniques described, bearing in mind the balance of costs and advantages inherent within the definition of BAT. In some cases, it may be technically possible to achieve better emission or consumption levels but due to the costs involved or cross-media considerations, they are not considered to be appropriate as BAT for the sector as a whole.
NOx & SO2
The cement industry currently operates under the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) regime, and applies Best Available Techniques (BAT). It is under this policy instrument that NOx and SO2 emissions are regulated.
The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a global treaty which aims to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of mercury. The Convention was agreed at the beginning of 2013 and provides for controls and reductions across a range of products, processes and industries where mercury is used, released or emitted (including cement kilns). In this regard, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEPi) prepared a global legally binding instrument on mercury via:
As a result, CEMBUREAU is an active participant together with the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSIi) to the Global Mercury Partnership through the Cement Manufacture Partnership set up under the auspices of UNEP. The Global Mercury Partnership is one of the main mechanisms to deliver immediate action on mercury in various industry sectors on the management of mercury emissions. The Cement Manufacture Partnership area has worked on a business plan that outlines cost-effective approaches that the Partnership area will undertake in order to achieve reduction in mercury emissions. In this regard, three main priority areas have been identified:
CEMBUREAU is committed to contribute its expertise to this important initiative together with its global partners.
More information: UNEP